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Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease

GERD is reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus, It occur when the lower esophageal sphincter which normally prevents reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus is weak
Patient complain of heartburn, reflux of food content into the esophagus; patient can have extra-esophageal symptoms such as cough; Upper GI Endoscopy is the first step which will show features of esophagitis
Proton pump inhibitors such as pantaprazole which inhibit acid formation will give relieve to the symptom of heartburn but it does not prevent reflux and patient is predisposed to cancer due to reflux so endoscopy is advised to these patients who are on long term on proton pump inhibitors
Surgery is advised to those patients who on investigation are confirmed to have reflux disease and have extra-esophageal symptoms, young age, defective lower esophageal sphincter; Surgery performed is Laparoscopic Fundoplication