Acute Pancreatitis: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Acute Pancreatitis Causes

Gallstones and Alcohol are two major risk factors for acute pancreatitis. In few cases no cause is identified that is called as idiopathic pancreatitis. Rare causes are toxins, drugs, raised serum calcium level, hypertriglyceridemia., annular pancreascholedochal cyst

Acute Pancreatitis Symptoms

Stomach pain localized to upper abdomen radiating to back is the most common symptom. Nausea and vomiting are common. Patient may develop respiratory distress and decreased urine output

Acute Pancreatitis Diagnosis

Raised serum amylase and lipase level with typical pain abdomen is sufficient for diagnosis. CECT abdomen is done when there is doubt of diagnosis. If there is no doubt about diagnosis then CECT abdomen is done after 72 hrs of abdomen pain. Pancreatic necrosis if there develop till 72 hrs. CECT also show other peri-pancreatic complications

Pancreatitis Treatment

The main stay of treatment is symptomatic and supportive. I.V fluids and Oxygen therapy is given. Patient is encouraged for oral intake if there is no vomiting. TPN should be started if persistent vomiting. Nasojejunal feed can be started. There is no role for prophylactic antibiotic

Pancreatitis treatment at home

Mild pancreatitis can be treated at home. Patient oral intake should be good. Patient require good analgesia. If patient cannot be managed at home due to excess vomitting and pain then patient should be shifted to hospital where iv fluid supplement can be given

Can Pancreatitis be Cured

Acute pancreatitis is a self resolving disease which need supportive care. Recurrent episode of pancreatitis can be prevented by treating the cause of pancreatitis. In case of biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy will prevent recurrent attack of pancreatitis. In alcohol induced acute pancreatitis, stopping alcohol intake will prevent further episodes

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