ColoRectal Cancer incidence is rising. Incidence is more in older age group after the age of 50 year. This cancer has got good prognosis compared to other GI Cancer. Screening colonoscopy is advised after the age of 50 year in normal risk patients. It can detect cancer at early stage.
ColoRectal Cancer Symptoms
The most common symptom is altered bowel habits. Fresh Bleeding per rectum is common in rectal cancer. Ascending colon cancer patients may have symptoms of anemia such as weakness. Ascending or Right side colon cancer have a tendency to bleed. Descending or Sigmoid colon cancer patient may present with features of large bowel obstruction. Anorexia and weight loss are common. Advance tumors can have liver metastases and ascites.Patients with ascites complain of abdomen distension
The main stay diagnostic tool is colonoscopy done by Gastroenterologist. Full length colonoscopy is done as the incidence of synchronous colon cancer is high. Biopsy will confirm the diagnosis.
CECT whole abdomen is done. It will determine the resectability of the cancer. CEA is tumor marker for colon cancer. It is used in follow up after surgery for early detection of recurrence.The level of CEA should decrease after complete resection. Persistent high level suggest incomplete resection
The recommended first line of treatment is surgery. Radical colectomy is done.For Cancer Rectum Anterior Resection surgery is done. Neo-adjuvant chemo-radiotherapy is given for locally advanced rectal cancer. Left sided cancer may present with acute large bowel obstruction. Stent can be placed across the obstruction by the Gastroenterologist.