Esophagus Cancer: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Esophagus is food pipe that connects from mouth to stomach or in other words it carries food from the mouth to the stomach. Esophagus cancer incidence is increasing. The length of esophagus is divided into three parts upper third, middle third and lower third

Esophagus Cancer Causes

Cause of lower third cancer is obesity and GERD. Histologically lower third cancer is adenocarcinoma. Cause of middle and upper third cancer is smoking and alcohol. Histologically it is squamous cell carcinoma


Cancer causes obstruction to the passage of food bolus. The most common symptom these patients complain is dysphagia that is difficulty in swallowing food. These patients adapt there food intake, when they have dysphagia to solid food they start eating soft diet and when narrowing does not allow soft diet they start taking liquid diet the most common presentation. Anorexia and weight loss are common symptom. In advanced cancer patient can have pain over the bone, hoarseness in the voice


Upper GI endoscopy is the main diagnostic tool. when patient present with complain of dysphagia the first investigation to be done is upper GI endoscopy. Biopsy taken at this time proves the diagnosis. CECT chest and abdomen is done for the staging.PET Scan is done in the selected cases only


The main stay of treatment of esophagus cancer is surgery. For this tumor should be resectable and patient should be fit. In locally advanced tumor before surgery chemo-radiotherapy is given. In metastatic disease palliation is required. As the main symptom is dysphagia esophagus stenting is done. This is done by upper GI endoscopy. If this is not possible feeding jejunostomy is done

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