Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic SurgeonLaparoscopic Surgery “Modern Surgical Art” by Laparoscopic Surgeon has revolutioned the medical field. The abdomen or pelvis operation which is performed with the help of a camera with small incisions is called as Laparoscopy, when it is performed on the chest or thoracic cavity it is called as keyhole surgery or thoracoscopic surgery

What is Laparoscopic Surgery

Laparoscopic surgery means minimally invasive surgery or surgery done by minimal incision. It is possible with the help of an instrument called laparoscope which has a tiny video camera and light on the end. To provide a working & viewing space the abdominal cavity is first inflated with carbon dioxide gas. Then telescope is introduced in the abdominal cavity with incision of 5mm. Through it surgeon or doctor can look at a video monitor inside of the abdominal cavity. Other working ports are inserted with small incisions and surgery is performed

What Surgeries can be Done Laparoscopically

Most of the abdominal surgeries can be done laparoscopically. Gallbladder removal called as cholecystectomy & Appendectomy are two most common laparoscopic abdomen surgeries.

Laparoscopic Cancer Surgery

Earlier it was being done for benign diseases only, but with experience and advancement even GI cancer surgery by trained Laparoscopic surgeon are also being done laparoscopically, commonly being colo-rectal cancer surgery. The recurrence rate and survival rate are similar as in open approach

Why is laparoscopy surgery done

Laparoscopy surgery has many advantages compared to traditional open approach.
(A) The intensity of pain in the post-operative period depends on the length of the surgical incision. As it is very minimal, patient is comfortable and feel less pain even at minimal pain killer dosages
(B) Patient get mobilized very early, and get back to normal activities sooner. Hospital stay is reduced and the incidence of deep vein thrombosis is reduced
(C) Less respiratory complications as patient can do deep breath exercises because of less pain
(D) Gut motility comes earlier resulting in early oral intake
(E) Smaller, Smooth and Healthy Scar
(F) Surgical Infection: It has been seen that better preservation of immune system has lead to decreased infectious complications in laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopy surgery time

The duration of laparoscopy surgery vary
(A) According to the surgery: When it is done to diagnose intra-abdominal condition called as diagnostic laparoscopy , it usually takes 15-30 minutes. It will take longer if surgery is being carried out to treat benign condition. GI Cancer surgery are done on oncological principles and can take 2-3 hrs for colo-rectal cancer to 6-8 hrs for pancreatic cancer surgery
(B) Intra-abdominal adhesions: For any surgery whether it is done by open or laparoscopic approach, the important factor which may influence the duration of surgery is intra-abdominal adhesions
(C) Laparoscopic surgeon experience

Complications of Laparoscopic Surgery

Every medical or surgical procedure carries some risk with it. Complications related to laparoscopic approach can be grouped into
(A) Complications of laparoscopic access: Access to the peritoneal cavity to introduce carbon dioxide may lead to injury to blood vessels and bowel
(B) Physiologic complications of the pneumoperitoneum: Cardiac output decreases and mean arterial pressure increases which need consideration in cardiac patients

Laparoscopy surgery cost

The cost varies whether it is done just for diagnosis or to treat disease. Major abdominal surgeries done for cancer which are more than 6hrs duration carries more cost compare to benign diesease surgery such as appendectomy/cholecystectomy. It also varies from one institute to other

When & What to eat after laparoscopy surgery

After Laparoscopic surgery bowel movements appear early as compared to open procedure, if bowel resection is not done during surgery then patient can be allowed liquids orally 4-6 hrs after surgery and gradually to normal diet. If bowel resection is done then diet is resumed once bowel movements return which is faster as compared to open surgery

Laparoscopy incisions healing time & Scars

As the length of incision is less in laparoscopy surgery, healing time is less as compared to open approach and incisions heal within a week. Scars are smooth and very minimal