Liver Disease Causes

Liver DiseaseInfection: Various infections can cause liver disease, the most common types are hepatitis viruses such as Hepatitis A, B, C & E
Chronic Alcohol Abuse: Most common cause of liver cancer and indication for transplant
Fatty Liver: Common causes are obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, diabetes
Immune system abnormality: Examples include Autoimmune hepatitis, Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Primary biliary cirrhosis
Other Causes: Drugs and Toxins, Genetics

Risk Factors: Following factors may increase your risk for Liver problem

  • Alcohol Abuse
  • Diabetes
  • Obesity
  • Exposure to certain toxins or chemicals
  • Unprotected sex
  • Injecting drugs using shared needles
  • Blood transfusion


  • Yellowish discoloration of skin and eyes (Jaundice)
  • Nausea & Vomitting
  • Chronic Fatigue
  • Pruritus / Itching
  • Abdomen pain and distension (Ascites)
  • Swelling or edema in the ankle and leg
  • Dark colored urine
  • Pale stools
  • Loss of appetite
  • Blood in the vomitus (Hematemesis)
  • Fresh blood in the stool (Hematochezia) or Black tarry stools (melena)


Treatment varies from life-style modifications to drugs to surgery depending on the specific cause. Changes in life-style include stopping alcohol use, regular exercise, diabetes and weight control for fatty liver, Chronic liver damage is managed conservatively with drugs initially and Liver transplant for end stage liver problem

Liver Disease Prevention

Healthy life style with regular exercise and weight management is must for healthy liver. Diabetes control. It is predicted that Fatty liver will be the leading cause of liver failure and liver cancer in future. Avoid alcohol intake and smoking. Hepatitis B vaccine is available. Unprotected sex, infected blood transfusion, sharing infected needles are risk for hepatitis infection and should be avoided


Hepatocellular Cancer / Liver Cancer

It is the most common malignant tumor; Occur after the age of 50 year and incidence is more common in male patient; In 80% of cases it occur under the background of chronic hepatic disease while in another 20% it occur in normal background; The common causes of chronic hepatic disease in these patients are Alcohol, Hepatitis B & C infection and Steatohepatitis

Hepatocellular Cancer or Liver Cancer can be one of the reason for decompensation in patients of cirrhosis; Otherwise these patients present with features like ascites/ jaundice and when investigated are found to have Cancer

Pain right upper abdomen along with anorexia and weight loss are common

Imaging modality of choice for diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma is triple phase CT abdomen which reveals typical feature of HCC that is arterial enhancement and portal venous phase washout; Tumor marker is alpha-fetoprotein; Typical feature on CT along with raised alpha-fetoprotein is sufficient for diagnosis of hepatic Cancer; FNAC is not done because of risk of seedling of needle tract

Surgical resection is the treatment of choice; When Hepatic Cancer occur under the background of cirrhosis and if it comes under the criteria of transplant and if donor is available it should be the treatment of choice

If Surgical resection is not possible or patient is not fit for surgery then there are various non-surgical methods available which should be done according to the criteria fulfilled

The most common lesion seen on ultrasound is hemangioma; Whenever in doubt of the diagnosis triple phase CT abdomen should be done to confirm it; Patient symptoms should not be related to hemangioma because it is seen on ultrasound until and unless other pathologies is ruled out, It is a benign condition and usually does not require any intervention; Only large symptomatic hemangiomas require intervention.

Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

It is generally of two types one is pyogenic and other is Amoebic, Most commonly patients present with fever and right-sided upper abdomen pain; Ultrasound abdomen is the first investigation in pain abdomen which will suggest the diagnosis, it will tell number and size of the abscess, whenever in doubt triple phase CT abdomen should be done because many times other hepatic pathology may be misdiagnosed , Once diagnosed appropriate antibiotics should be started, At initial stage abscess are solidified so Percutaneous drainage will not be effective, so in case of large abscess once it is liquified PCD can be done, Sometimes patient present with features of ruptured hepatic abscess such as diffuse pain abdomen, high grade fever in these cases Laparoscopic peritoneal lavage with abscess drainage should be done.

Simple Liver Cyst

Liver Resection

Types of Liver Resection

Hepatic Adenoma


Management of Liver Hydatid cyst